Linking a string of charming beach communities from Oceanside to La Jolla, Historic Highway 101 hugs the Pacific Ocean and provides a connection to the simpler, quieter lifestyle of the past. Cement slabs and strip malls have not found their way here. Funky shops housed in everything from Victorian homes to old 1950s gas stations, local cafes and coffee houses, and miles of sandy beaches are still part of the lure of this fascinating strip of old road.
Park of an international highway stretching from Mexico to Canada, Highway 101 is still the route that connects many historic and cultural treasures in this region, from major attractions to shops housing everything from antique glass and furniture to surfboards and sleds.
History of Highway 101
When Fr. Junipero Serra began building his string of missions up the California coastline in the late 1700s, he needed a wagon road to connect them and so he constructed California's first highway. He called it El Camino Real, a term used at the time to describe primitive wagon roads, which translates to "King's Highway" or "the Royal Road." For nearly two centuries this road, later officially known as U.S. Highway 101, was the principal north-south route in California.
With the construction of Interstate 5 in the 1960s, most of Highway 101 was bypassed, leaving much of the original route lightly affected by California's explosive growth. Because of this, historic U.S. 101 provides a look back at California in its early days.
The entire 935-mile route of Highway 101 in California was given historic designation by the State of California in 1998.
In San Diego County, Oceanside marks the beginning of the 101 in the north. From I-5, take the Coast Highway exit and begin travelling south along Historic Highway 101.
A classic beach community, Oceanside has some of California's widest and sandiest beaches.
- Look for the old iron bells that dot the highway. They are the El Camino Bells, erected in 1906 to signal to travelers that a California Mission was nearby. Mission San Luis Rey, the largest of the California Missions, is just 3 miles east of the highway in Oceanside.
- The California Surf Museum is a great homage to the fervent surf culture of Southern California; antique surfboards, historic photos, and exhibits on early pioneer surfers line the walls.
Specializing in "comfort food," the 101 Café is the oldest continuously operating restaurant on the 101 in California. Visitors and locals alike enjoy this 50s-style diner complete with old-fashioned jukebox and historic photos, including those of Highway 101.
- The Star Theater, still home to live theater performances, is a perfect example of "Googie" architecture that was popular in the 1950s.
The Oceanside Pier is the longest over-water wooden pier on the West Coast. Enjoy the 360-degree scenic view of the Pacific Ocean and coastline to the north and south.
Carlsbad is home to beautiful sandy beaches, three unique lagoons, outstanding shopping and world-class sporting events.
Enjoy an elegant spa treatment at Alt Karlsbad, which gave Carlsbad its name. This historic landmark is where water was found in 1882 that had similar qualities to the water found at a famous European spa called Karlsbad in Bohemia (Karlovy Vary in Czech Republic today).
Carlsbad Village is walking distance from Highway 101 and Carlsbad's beautiful beaches. The Village is home to many fine restaurants, cafes and lots of antique shopping.
On the east side of Highway 101 at Carlsbad Village Drive is Ocean House. This elegant Victorian mansion was built in 1887 by the owner of Carlsbad Land and Water Company.
Just inland on the east side of Interstate 5 is LEGOLAND® California Resort, where kids power their way through rides, shows and Lego sculptures. The Resort is also home to the world's first LEGOLAND® Water Park and SEA LIFE® Carlsbad Aquarium, providing a kids-eye view of the undersea world.
Flower lovers are drawn to The Flower Fields of Carlsbad California where from early March to early May they can walk among nearly 50 acres of flowering giant tecolote ranunculus that grow in spectacular brilliance across rolling hills along the east side of Interstate 5.
Known as both the surf and flower capital of the world, Encinitas is also a hip beach community. Visitors will discover excellent restaurants, beaches, and interesting shops, galleries and coffeehouses along Historic Highway 101.
The downtown Encinitas portion of Highway 101 is lined with interesting shops and cafes. Explorers will delight in poking through trunks of treasures housed in everything from funky store fronts to artsy cottages.
The La Paloma Theater, still operating, has a rich Hollywood history. The gala event in 1928 was attended by Hollywood starlet and soon to be Academy Award winner Mary Pickford. It has been rumored that she rode her bicycle all the way from Fairbanks Ranch, where she lived, for the event.
Encinitas offers great out-of-the-way beach spots as well as popular beaches that include Moonlight, which is perfect for families. Swami's Beach, made famous by the Beach Boys' hit song, "Surfin' USA," is one of San Diego County's prime surf spots.
Encinitas is home to the San Diego Botanic Garden. The gardens feature 37 acres of unusual plants from all over the world, including the largest bamboo collection in the United States.
This small coastal community lures sun lovers, surfers, joggers and beach walkers as well as art shoppers and theater- and café-goers. Its unique restaurants, nightclubs and studios offer a true adventure for those looking to satisfy a culinary craving or discover a hard-to-find art treasure.
Cedros Design District with its 2½ blocks of brightly painted industrial buildings has attracted a vibrant community of merchants, fashion designers, importers and craftsmen. Its more than 85 unique shops include art galleries, home decor imports, boutiques, spas, cafes, restaurants and the Belly Up Tavern.
- Located in the Cedros Design District and called one of the hottest clubs on the West Coast by Rolling Stone magazine, the legendary Belly-Up Tavern features some of America's finest rock performances.
- The city's main beach, Fletcher Cove, features excellent surfing, swimming and parking.
- Public art is a passion in Solana Beach, expressed in its architecture and public art. Here are a few examples to see when in Solana Beach:
- The Solana Beach Train Station, an award-winning structure designed by leading San Diego architect Rob Quigley, and next to the train station, the "Star" sculpture by internationally acclaimed artist Niki de Saint Phalle.
- The grand entrance and artistic touches throughout the Solana Beach portion of the Coastal Rail Trail, a 12-foot-wide, 33-mile trail that borders the train tracks in San Diego's North County Coastal. For train watchers, the San Diego Coastal Rail Trail is a real thrill, and for joggers, bicyclists, and skaters, it has become a recreational destination.
Since the legendary days of Hollywood's golden years, Del Mar has been the destination of choice for many a movie star, as well as those with a taste for fast horses, beautiful beaches and award-winning cuisine. The historic and charming Del Mar Village offers a variety of unique shops and renowned restaurants.
Bing Crosby was instrumental in founding the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club to indulge a passion to race horses by the sea. Today visitors still swarm to the Del Mar Races from mid-July to early September at the Del Mar Fairgrounds, "where the turf meets the surf."
- The Del Mar Fairgrounds plays host to the San Diego County Fair from mid-June through early July each year. It is one of the largest county fairs in the country.
If you enjoy shopping in elegant boutiques, head up the hill to the Del Mar Plaza. Having a drink and relaxing on the top-level patio is worth the trip for a scenic ocean view.
Stroll along miles of rocky shoreline or either of Del Mar's beautiful beaches where you can take a spontaneous dip or settle into your favorite book.
Spanish for "The Jewel," La Jolla is a picturesque coastal community. The cliffs and La Jolla Cove form a dramatic frame to the Pacific Ocean, and the beaches are an excellent spot for swimming, snorkeling, kayaking, diving and surfing. Enjoy La Jolla's array of fine and historic hotels, downtown boutique shopping, award-winning restaurants and theater, and art galleries.
Along the beautiful coastline you'll see Torrey Pines State Beach, a popular beach for families, and Torrey Pines State Park, featuring eight miles of walking trails with fabulous ocean views below and paragliders from the nearby gliderport soaring above.
Just up the road, witness the famed Torrey Pines Golf Course, home to the annual Farmers Insurance Invitational and the 2008 U.S. Open.
Overlooking the Pacific Ocean, the renowned Birch Aquarium at Scripps presents aspects of oceanography through interactive exhibits, a touch tank, and kayaking and whale watching tours with its naturalists.
The Tony Award-winning La Jolla Playhouse, founded by actors Gregory Peck, Dorothy McGuire, and Mel Ferrer, is a regional theater with a national reputation.
Continue on to the upscale Village of La Jolla, called the "Rodeo Drive" of San Diego. You'll discover shopping and dining on a whole new level, just steps from the Pacific.
The La Jolla Ecological Preserve is a popular place for kayaking, snorkeling and scuba. Families get a kick out of Seal Beach, where these lackadaisical little sea creatures ran the humans out years ago.
You'll also find interesting architecture by a local innovator, Irving Gill. His simple designs include the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego - La Jolla and the Bed and Breakfast Inn at La Jolla.
While each of these coastal communities has its own unique character, they are linked by a ribbon of road that reaches far back in time.